Medicine defines the nervous system As the fabric fabric which is responsible for capturing and processing stimuli so that the body can specify an effective interaction with the environment . This means that the nervous system has a sensitive role (for receiving both internal and external stimuli), a integrating function (for analyzing the captured signals, saving information and formulating a reaction) and a motor function (muscle movement or glandular secretion in response to stimuli ).
It is interesting to know that the nervous system can be segmented as Central Nervous System (area that covers the spinal cord and brain) and how peripheral nervous system (where the cranial nerves and spinal nerves are located).
With respect to the brain, we have to establish that it is divided into three clearly differentiated parts: the forebrain or anterior brain, the midbrain that is also called the midbrain, and finally the rhombencephalon that in the same way is known as posterior brain.
The central nervous system (also identified with the acronym SNC ) is protected by membranes known as meninges and by bone structures (the skull protects the brain while the spine covers the cord). The cells that make up the CNS, on the other hand, are grouped in the call gray substance (i.e. the neural bodies) and the white substance (nerve extensions known as dendrites and axons).
What the SNC does is receive and process stimuli that collect the different senses and transmit the answers . The specialization of its cells causes the regeneration of the CNS in case of disease or accident is almost null.
In addition to all of the above, we cannot ignore the fact that the central nervous system can be affected by a series of infections that reach it through the peripheral system, the blood, a local infection or a germ that penetrates root of a trauma of different types.
There are several conditions for which this system can be affected and among them, meningitis, which, as its name suggests, is an inflammation of the meninges. It can be aseptic or pyogenic.
However, there are other equally significant infections as would be the case also called encephalitis. An inflammatory process is this that can lead to the neuronal death of the person suffering from it.
And all this without forgetting cerebritis, which is a focal inflammation of what the brain is and its main symptoms are necrosis or swelling of certain areas.
The Alzheimer disease (the first cause of dementia), the multiple sclerosis and the Parkinson disease These are some of the disorders that affect the abilities of the CNS. These problems are grouped under the name of diseases of neurodegenerative nature, which involve a process of cell death and a reduction in the number of neurons.
Three serious pathologies to which we would also have to add the one also known as Huntington's disease that is defined as being a disorder in both movement and dementia of the patient.