The notion of perception derives from the Latin term perceived and describes both the action as a consequence of perceiving (that is, to have the ability to receive images, impressions or senses through the senses). sensations external, or understand and know something).
Before defining this concept we will say that to know the inner or outer world We need to perform a process of decoding the messages that are received throughout the body. Perception is defined as cognitive process through which people are able to understand their surroundings and act accordingly to the impulses they receive; It is about understanding and organizing the stimuli generated by the environment and giving them meaning. In this way the next thing the individual will do will be to send a response accordingly.
Perception can also mention a certain knowledge at one idea or to the inner sensation that arises from a material impression derived from our senses.
For the psychology , perception consists of a function that allows the organism to receive, process and interpret the information that arrives from the outside using the senses .
The term began to capture the attention of scholars during the XIX century . The first models that linked the magnitude of a physical stimulus with that of the perceived episode allowed the appearance of the so-called psychophysics .
The specialists assure that the perception is the first cognitive procedure , which allows the subject to capture the information of the surrounding environment through the Energy that reaches the sensory systems.
This procedure has inferential and constructive character . In this context, the inner representation of what happens outside arises as a way of hypothesis . The data that the receivers capture is analyzed gradually, together with the information collected in the memory and that contributes to the processing and creation of said representation.
Through perception, information is interpreted and the idea of a single object is established. This means that it is feasible to experience different qualities of the same thing and merge them through perception, to understand that it is a single object .
Differences between sensation and perception
It is important to state that perception is not synonymous with sensation, and since both concepts are often used as synonyms, we will explain what their differences are.
A sensation is an experience that is lived from a stimulus ; It is the clear answer to a fact captured through the senses.
A perception, meanwhile, is the interpretation of a sensation That which is captured by the senses acquires meaning and is classified in the brain. It is often said that sensation is what precedes perception.
To exemplify this difference we say that the volume and tone of a song performed by a musician are captured by the listener as a sensation, while if we are able to recognize what song it is or bash similarities between those sounds and others heard before , we are facing a perception. The first is an intuitive and automatic process, while the second is more elaborate and rational.
As defined by the theory of Gestalt , people perceive the world as a whole and not in a fragmented way; We can check this if we think that when we wake up and open our eyes we can see the whole room where we are and not just loose objects. Through our perception we are able to understand what that whole is formed of and isolate what interests us most in each moment.
According to studies conducted around this concept we can say that there are factors biological of perception, with which we are born, and others learned ; This means that the way we perceive our environment is modified throughout our lives through experiences. For example, when we were children we admired our father, but after a certain age we may no longer do so, and even hate him, this means that according to the situations we have been through we have reinterpreted that person and placed him in different places over time.
It is important to clarify that there is another type of perception, the extrasensory, it is related to the way we perceive things where ordinary senses do not participate. The specialists explain that they are energy transfer phenomena that cannot be understood through biological or physical concepts. These phenomena are: telepathy (ability to read the mind), precognition (prediction of a fact that will take place in the future), clairvoyance (ability to see things that are not in space) and psychokinesis (ability to modify matter through the mind).