He exile consists of the remoteness of an individual of the place where he resides or of his land native. When that section is forced and is produced by political issues, it is talked about expatriation .
The consequences who lives one person that is exiled and at site in which it is also called exile.
For example: "The repression led thousands of people into exile", "I have insomnia since I am in exile", "When will the exile end and we can return to home without risking our life? ".
In times of the Second World War , when the Nazis and the communists a great number of nations dominated, exiles were carried out in many countries. From the Jews who escaped persecution to those who had to leave for their political commitment, millions of people had to settle in regions far from their lands.
One of the most famous exiles throughout history was the German physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955 ); his destiny was the U.S .
It should be noted that there are not only people in exile, but governments (like that of Tibet ) Or until nations (as it happened with Armenia between 1078 and 1375 ).
In Argentina , behind the coup from 1976 , thousands of individuals had to go into exile to avoid being imprisoned, tortured and / or killed by the military dictatorship. Among the exiles were numerous personalities from the political and cultural spheres.
The exile ends when the causes that have forced people to move away from their land disappear or when the laws are modified, allowing free movement of individuals within the national soil. Usually, once totalitarian regimes have fallen, democratic governments push programs to facilitate the repatriation (that is, the return) of those citizens who had to leave the country.
Spanish exiles during the Civil War
One of the most dramatic periods in Spanish history is that of the Civil War. It was consequence of an attempted coup perpetrated by Francisco Franco and those in favor of an authoritarian and undemocratic regime.
This first coup did not have favorable results for the military, but from it a strong guerrilla was unleashed in which many fighters died, both on the side of the Republicans (who defended the legitimacy of the Popular Front government and political activists belonging to Marxism , to anarchy and to match worker) as of the Francoists (formed by the high command of national security, the Catholic church and the bourgeois and conservative right).
This conflict began in 1936 and was terminated on April 1, 1939, when General Francisco Franco publicly declared his victory and established himself in power, in a dictatorship that would last 36 unfortunate years. To avoid being killed or tortured, many people on both sides went into exile during the war; However, when it was over, the majority of individuals who had to leave their land were Republicans or those who had an open mind, since the dictator annulled all political parties and unions and sent to persecute not only their leaders, but also all those citizens who will support them.
The countries that received the highest number of Spanish exiles were France, Morocco and Latin American countries, such as the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Mexico and Argentina.
One of the most notorious consequences of mass exiles is the loss of a generation; in the case of Spain, it was one of the generations that is considered best formed in history (after the Golden Age); Fabulous poets and storytellers, scientists, politicians and health workers had to leave their land and settle elsewhere in order to save their lives.
Economically, mass exile resulted in a delay, given the many casualties and losses experienced during the guerrillas. This in turn caused a lack of scientific growth and cultural, which would not be recomposed until tens of years later, in the period of the Spanish Transition.