Aldehyde It is a term that derives from the English word aldehyde. This word, in turn, is an acronym for a Latin expression: dehydrogenatum alcohol. In this sense, we can expose, therefore, that it comes from an expression such as "dehydrogenated alcohol".
The aldehydes are chemical compounds organic type that arise when certain alcohols he oxidize .
As the aforementioned Latin expression suggests, an aldehyde is a dehydrated alcohol : that is, it has lost atoms of hydrogen . The aldehydes have a functional group formyl , which is formed when a hydrogen atom is separated from the compound known as formaldehyde.
To name the aldehydes, termination is eliminated -ol which has the name of hydrocarbon and it is added -to the . Thus, according to the nomenclature of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry , you can talk about aldehydes like the methanal (or formaldehyde , according to the trivial nomenclature), the ethanal (acetaldehyde ) or the propanal (propaldehyde ), to name the simplest according to their carbon number.
Aldehydes can act as reducers . In this way, they are used in different industries to produce paints, dyes, solvents and plastics, among other elements. It can also be used as a preservative and to obtain compounds such as melamine or bakelite.
No less important is that, in addition to the above, they can also be used with other equally significant uses:
-To carry out the creation of explosives of various kinds such as the so-called TNPE.
-To create the plastics of a technical type that are usually used to carry out what is the replacement of metal parts in both machinery and cars.
-In the same way, it should not be overlooked that they are also used within the field of perfumery.
It is important to mention that aldehydes can be formed through various natural processes. When a person ingest a high amount of alcoholic beverages and then feel the discomfort known as hangover, this sensation could be due to acetaldehyde which occurs within the framework of metabolization, according to some studies on the subject.
In addition to all of the above, we can highlight another important series of data about aldehydes, such as the following:
-The formula that, as a rule, identifies them is this: CnH2n + 1CHO.
-The boiling point to be stressed that the aldehydes have is above that of the alkanes, but is lower than the alcohol.
-Among those that end in -al, we can highlight some such as ethanal, propanal, methanal or butenal.
-When there are two groups of aldehydes, the “-dial” termination is granted. This would be the case of the pentodial or butanedial.
-In particular, it is determined that the most frequent ways or processes through which aldehydes are formed are carbonylation, dehydrogenation and oxidation of alcohols and also what is known as oxidation of alkyl halides.