The term council , whose origin is in the Latin word concilium, alludes to one meeting which is carried out with the objective of dealing with any matter of interest. The documents that arise from this meeting are also called council.
For example: “The Uruguayan businessman will join the World Council of Organizers of Musical Shows”, “The Carson Council will meet tomorrow with the objective of resolving the conflict”, "From the opposition they raised the need to create a Council for the Representation of Retired and Pensioners".
The idea of council usually refers to a meeting from ecclesiastical authorities of the Catholic Church which has the purpose of analyzing and deciding issues related to dogmas .
The Catholic Church, from its creation to the year 1054 held eight ecumenical councils . From that date, there was a division between West and East and since then the councils were summoned by the western Church. Between 1054 and today there were another twelve councils, convened by the Pope .
The most recent ecumenical council of the Catholic Church took place between 1962 and 1965 at Vatican . Known as Vatican Council II , his call ran on behalf of John XXIII , in charge of presiding over the first stage , while the last sessions were led by Paul VI .
The national councils (which are convened with the authorization of the Pope and are aimed at the episcopacy of region ) and the provincial councils (led by a metropolitan bishop) are other councils developed by the Catholic Church.
One of the most significant ecumenical councils of the history The Catholic Church was that of Trento, which took place over twenty-five sessions that took place between 1545 and 1563 in the city of Trento, north of the current Italian territory (at that time it was a free imperial city, in charge of a prince-bishop).
Pope Paul III He made his first attempt to hold this council in 1537, in Mantua, and then in Vicenza, the following year, while seeking to reach a peace agreement for Francisco I and Carlos V in Nice. After several obstacles that forced him to postpone the meeting, he decided to convene a General Council of the Church at the end of 1545, which served to trace the alignments of the reforms of Catholicism (later called "counter-reforms").
In bliss session Five superiors general and twenty-five bishops were present. The fundamental idea of the council of Trent was embodied in the management of Francisco Torres, Alfonso Salmerón and Diego Laínez, three prominent Jesuits; Pedro Guerrero, the bishop of Granada, was the main exponent of practical norms; the inspiration for the council's philosophy, on the other hand, came from Cardillo de Villalpando, an important theologian of Spain.
The last meeting of the council of Trent was held at the time of Pope Pius IV . Throughout all those years they were taken decisions of utmost importance for the Catholic Church, and one of the most relevant was to increase the requirements of excellence for the bishopric candidates: the bishops had to have impeccable behavior, a history free of any immoral attitude and a very high theoretical level.
To achieve this last objective, seminars were created especially for the education of future priests. Other highlights were the requirement of clerical celibacy, the imposition to the bishops who resided in their dioceses and the impossibility of accumulating benefits. The council of Trent also imposed the need for the Church to mediate to achieve the salvation of the human being and reaffirmed the position of the Pope as the highest authority.