The first thing to do before analyzing in depth the meaning of the hermeneutical concept is to determine its etymological origin because in this way we will understand the reason for this meaning. In this sense, we can say that it comes from the Greek hermeneutikos, which in turn is formed by the union of three "particles."
Thus, it is the result of the sum of the word hermeneuo which can be translated as "I decipher," the word tekhné what does "art" mean, and the suffix -tikos which is synonymous with "related to". Hence, it can literally be stated that this term that concerns us is the art of explaining texts or writings, artistic works.
In the same way, we cannot ignore that the hermeneutics is in relation to the Greek god Hermes who was in charge of Olympus to carry the secret messages to their recipients and once with them he was the one to decipher them.
is defined as hermeneutics to the art based on the text interpretation , especially, of those works that are considered as sacred . From the perspective of the philosophy defended by Hans-Georg Gadamer , this concept describes the so-called theory of the truth and constitutes the procedure that allows to express the universalization of the interpretative capacity from the personal and specific historicity.
In this way, it is possible to classify hermeneutics in various ways. There is, for example, the type philological (variant that originated in Alexandria in order to determine the authentic character of the ancient writings); the biblical hermeneutics (which emerged towards 17th and 18th centuries with the purpose of achieving an adequate, objective and understandable interpretation of the Bible ) and the hermeneutics of philosophical profile (a modality that does not depend on the linguistics and seeks to set the relevant conditions of any interpretation).
In the specific case of the branch of hermeneutics responsible for carrying out the interpretation of sacred texts that belong either to the Bible or to other works of a religious nature that belong to various cultures, it is necessary to underline that it is also known as exegetic
The origin of the hermeneutical studies is in the Christian theology , framework in which two different interpretations of the Bible are distinguished: one literal and the other one of spiritual dye, which in turn is divided into anagogical, allegorical and moral analyzes.
He literal message of the Holy Scriptures is one that emerges from the writing itself and is captured by philological exegesis, which is developed according to the regulations of the correct interpretation.
He spiritual value instead, it is the one generated by God in the human being , by proposing a religious content that allows complementing the signs. In this framework it is possible to distinguish between allegorical sense (so that people of faith achieve interpretative depth when reading the events. To cite a specific example: the crossing of the Red Sea is a symbol of Christ's victory and baptism), the moral sense (the episodes mentioned in the Bible can serve as a model and impulse for a fair action) and the anagogical or mystical sense (He who aims to demonstrate that the saints have the ability to observe realities and enduring events until eternity).
Among the most important authors within the field of hermeneutics who have opted for it and who have developed it in their different facets include figures of the stature of Friedrich Schleiermacher, the German scholar Wilhelm Dilthey, Martin Heidegger or Paul Ricoeur.