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Printing is the industrial technique which enables play , in paper or similar materials, texts and figures by types , irons or other procedures. The printing process consists of applying ink on the types and transferring it to the paper by pressure. By extension, it is known as printing press to the place or workshop Where it is printed.

For example: "The writer announced that the book is already in print, so it will go on sale in the coming weeks", "I have to call the press: advertising has a couple of spelling errors", "The government intends to control the printing press to curtail freedom of expression".

The background of the modern printing press is found in the Ancient Rome ; around the year 440 BC began to be printed on clay objects, while the first printing press of mobile types was created in China in the decade of 1040 .

What is known as modern printing press was created towards 1440 by the german Johannes Gutenberg . Until then, the books were handwritten by copyists , and this task took a long time and generated confusion since many of these people were illiterate, so they were forced to try to imitate the strokes, as if they were mere drawings.

At present, the notion of printing transcends printing, since there are several mechanisms and technologies to reproduce texts , as the flexography , the serigraphy , the lithography and the digital methods .

The print on demand It is that form of publication that consists in the reproduction of a certain quantity of copies at the time of receiving the order in question. This modality is especially used for the technique known as self-publishing, the path that many writers choose today in the absence of money to finance a publication traditional.

The printing presses that offer this service, do not usually devote themselves to the promotion of the works, as it does a editorial, at least not for free; therefore, when a writer is inclined to self-publishing, he should be in charge of contacting the bookstores to get them to include their books in their catalogs, as well as organizing events such as public readings and obtaining a position at the Book Fair. Every time you need a certain volume of copies, you just have to request it and it will be sent to you within the period established in the contract.

Hectograph

Not many know of the existence of this predecessor of modern copiers, which can be built following a very simple series of steps in any home. First of all, it should be clarified that this is a resource for those cases in which a large number of do you copy.

In principle it is necessary to leave 30 grams of gelatin in Water cold for about eight hours, making sure it is absolutely covered. On the other hand, 60 grams of fine salt must be dissolved in half a liter of water, mixed with an average of 200 grams of pure glycerin and heat the mixture to 93 ° C. After an hour of cooking, 20 drops of clove essence should be added, useful so that the dough does not disintegrate, and everything is placed on a tray of suitable dimensions for the desired copies. It only remains to let the hectograph stand for about five hours away from heat and dust.

Before the first use, it is important to clean it with a damp sponge and let it dry almost completely. The steps to make a copy are very simple: it is simply necessary to capture the original in a alcohol sheet, which can be purchased at any bookshop, and place the written face on the hectograph, making sure that there is no area left without making contact with the jelly. After a minute, it is removed and the blank sheets are placed one by one; the copy is instantaneous, since the process is similar to that of a stamp. When the ink begins to run out, simply clean the base and repeat the procedure.

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