Originating in Latin index, the word index describe a hint, a reference or a signal that accounts for a certain thing . The term can be used to identify the numerical structure that reveals the relationship between various kinds of indicators or between a couple of quantities.
Developing , meanwhile, is the fact and result of progress or development (increase, increase or increase some intellectual, physical or moral order). Human Finally, it is what is associated or related to the man .
With these notions clear, we can go on to analyze the concept of human development Index (usually expressed with the acronym HDI ). It's about a Statistical indicator that collects information on the standard of living that prevails in each nation .
He HDI is under the responsibility of United Nations Development Program (whose acronym is UNDP ), an organism that conceives human development as the impetus for the potential progress of subjects .
Countries with higher and lower Human Development Index
This index began to be used from the year 1990 through a project launched by the UN, until that moment the development of the countries was measured with their economic growth, but given some research it was discovered that this number did not respond to human development as well , but purely commercial, therefore the Human Development Index (HDI) was created.
This project was announced on the grounds that people are the true wealth of a nation and that it was necessary to take them into account rather than economic gains. Thanks to it, a list can be established to classify each country taking into account not only the economic income, but also indicators that respond to health and education issues, mainly.
This index includes the average income of each individual and their health and education, taking into account other indicators such as life expectancy and average schooling in adults and children in school age.
At the moment these are the variables that are taken into account when measuring the development index, however, UNDP looks for other ways of knowing human development, such as the level of democracy, the sustainability, the freedom of expression and the inequality and it is expected that in the not too distant future these may also be included, although their implementation is much more difficult because it is more complex to calculate.
According to the various statistics made from the large censuses that are performed each year in each country, a knowledge of life expectancy can be achieved at birth; the level of literacy in adult people; student attendance at the primary, secondary and higher levels; years of compulsory instruction; and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per person. These statistics allow obtaining a figure that reflects the human development of each territory.
The most unequal continent in Human Development is Latin America, with countries that occupy the last steps of the list and others that are in the middle. The best country in this continent in terms of HDI , is Chile , which occupies the 45th position worldwide.
In other data collected from the last census, carried out in 2010, it can be seen that Norway is the country with best HDI : 0.938 points. They follow Australia , New Zealand , U.S and Ireland , in that order. At the other extreme, the nation with worst HDI is Zimbabwe (0,140), with a result barely higher than the Democratic Republic of Congo , Niger , Burundi and Mozambique .