If we want to know in depth the etymological origin of the term inference, we must proceed to move to Latin. There we will find how that is the result of the sum of three clearly identifiable parts: the prefix in-, which can be translated as “towards”; the verb ferre, which can be established as a synonym for “carry”, and finally the suffix -ia, which is equivalent to "action or quality".
Inference is the action and effect of inferring (deduct something, draw a consequence from something else, lead to a result). The inference arises from a mental evaluation between different expressions that, being related as abstractions, allow to draw a logical implication.
Starting from hypothesis or arguments , it is possible to infer a conclusion (which may be true or false). For example: "I still have not received the official confirmation from the company, what I tell you is just an inference from me", “Every time the team plays, Mariana misses work: my inference is that tomorrow we will be alone in the office”, "We cannot be guided by inferences, but we have to wait for the events to be confirmed before making a decision".
It is important, in addition to all of the above, to establish that there are several types of very significant inferences:
• Statistical inference. It is the one that becomes the protagonist in the field of administration and management. In his case, it is based on two fundamental pillars to be able to develop: what would be the contrast of different hypotheses and also the estimation.
• Behavior inference. As its name indicates, it is the one that is in charge of analyzing in depth the ways of behaving of the human being in general. To achieve this, factors such as the degree of intelligence or what empathy would be taken into account.
In addition to these two modalities, it should be stressed that in general, the inference is classified into five large groups:
• The trivaled one, which offers three values as results.
• The logic, which is what only allows establishing a true or false result.
• The probabilistic, which comes to determine that one truth is more likely to be than others.
• Multivalued, which is identified by the fact that it offers as a result a wide range of values.
• The diffuse. This last kind of inference can determine which is responsible for analyzing all the results with great precision.
He syllogism It is an essential form of inference. It is a form of deductive reasoning that is formed by two propositions (premises) and a conclusion. This conclusion is the inference that necessarily follows from the two premises.
The truth of the conclusion will depend on the laws that regulate the relationship between the premises compared. The real guarantee of the new trial is the logic , which must establish different classifications of the premises.
Not all inferences offer true conclusions . It is possible to affirm that all dogs are four-legged furry animals, but it cannot be inferred that all four-legged furry animals are dogs.
Inferences are usually generated from an analysis of characteristics and probabilities. If someone refers to a four-legged, furry animal that moves its tail, I can infer that it is most likely referring to a dog.