Egyptian keme ("land" ), the chemistry is the science which is dedicated to study of the structure, properties, composition and transformation of matter . It is possible to consider today's chemistry as an update or an evolved form of the old alchemy .
Phrases in which the term may appear: "The explosion of the factory was due to chemical causes, experts explained", "As a child I had a game to do chemical experiments", "Tomorrow I have a chemistry exam".
There are various disciplines within chemistry, which are grouped according to the type of study they perform or the kind of subject they study. It should be noted that chemistry also analyzes the changes that occur in matter during calls chemical reactions .
Broadly speaking, chemistry is divided into two well-defined groups, the organic chemistry and the inorganic chemistry . Organic chemistry is responsible for studying chemical reactions and the combination of carbon atoms, hydrocarbons and derivatives thereof, reaching all natural elements and organic (living) tissues. It offers solutions to improve the quality of life of the human being, in fields such as hygiene, health and the use of new materials that are not harmful to the ecology of the environment. For its part, inorganic chemistry studies minerals and artificial products obtained from chemical reactions.
There are other more precise classifications such as biochemistry (which specializes in the investigation of substances present in biological entities), the physical chemistry (intended for the study of energy issues of chemical systems), the analytic chemistry and the neurochemistry , among other.
Chemistry is considered the Central Science within the natural sciences, given its ubiquity that makes it essential for the resolution of problems or concerns in various fields of knowledge (such as biology , the medicine , the pharmacy , the geology , the astronomy and the engineering ).
It should be noted, however, that chemistry is a empirical science , which appeals to scientific method To create knowledge. Their findings are born from observation, experiments and quantification of results.
The processes that chemistry studies involve fundamental entities, called simple particles (electrons, protons or neutrons), or compound particles (atomic nuclei, molecules and atoms). Said particles if analyzed from a microscopic point of view can be taken as a closed system that is characterized by exchange energy with what surrounds him. If we are in the presence of exothermic processes, the system will release energy, while if it is an endothermic process, the system will absorb energy from its surroundings. The latter case is only possible if the environment releases energy that can be trapped by the system that reacts. Both energy exchange processes are called chemical reaction .
Possibly it is to chemistry to the science that we owe the most, because it is difficult for us to imagine life without artificial means of transport, operations without anesthetics or antiseptics, clothing without dyes and constructions without iron or cement. Chemical science has allowed humanity to advance by leaps and bounds in technology in recent centuries, increasing control over the environment and independence from him.
There is much that chemistry has managed to unveil, however the greatest mysteries still undiscovered , such as how living matter differs on a structural level from non-living matter, or how planet earth itself has been created (possibly thanks to physics that reveals this mystery, in collaboration with physics and other sciences, if one day the human being manages to find out). Another mystery that chemistry has between eyes to investigate is the process of photosynthesis, how do the leaves get the sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen and water in food? Mysteries that have been studied for hundreds of years and that continue to be a true enigma.
An interesting fact to clarify is that it is not the same to say physics-chemistry than chemistry-physics In fact, each of these branches are studied in a particular way, the first by physics and the second by the chemistry . Even to delve into details it is necessary to add that in English they are named in the opposite way, because of those characteristics of the Anglo-Saxon language where the adjective is written before the noun. Thus, the Spanish translation of Physical Chemistry is Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Chemical Physics.
Some chemists who have collaborated with the advance of the technology and the improvements in the quality of life of humanity have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. They are Aaron Ciechanover (of Israel), Avram Hershko (of Hungary) and Irwin Rose (of USA).