Requiem is the name that receives the Catholic Mass which is developed to ask for the soul of a person That has died. This ceremony is usually carried out before a funeral and in subsequent acts to remember the deceased individual.
The concept is also used to name the musical piece which accompanies the liturgical text of the ceremony in question. That's why a lot of compositions receives the name of requiem, even when its interpretation is rare today.
Thought in principle for the Gregorian singing , the requiems then had polyphonic versions and from other classes. There are requiems a cappella and others that appeal to different instruments as accompaniment
The liturgy is divided into different parts: Introito, Kyrie eleison, Gradual, Tracto, Sequence, Offertory, Holy, Agnus Dei and Communion. Given the extension of texts , musicians often make the decision to omit certain fragments or to divide the liturgy into several movements. Let's see below the content of each of the parts:
* Introito : The Lord is asked to provide the deceased with perpetual light and eternal rest, mentioning that all mortals are directed towards him and the sacrifices which in his honor they offer in Jerusalem;
* Kyrie eleison : the text is of little length and its three verses are practically identical, all with the objective of asking for mercy from Christ;
* Gradual : in this third part of the requiem, the faithful ask the Lord that the dead enjoy eternal rest and an endless light, as in the Introito, but the importance of having acted with justice during the lifetime , so that his memory never fades;
* Tract : God is asked to absolve the souls of those who are directed towards him, so that they should not bear the weight of their sins and that, instead of suffering revenge, they may be happy eternally protected in his grace;
* Sequence : talk about day of the go to, that in which everything will be reduced to mere ashes, of which the Sibyl and King David will be witnesses;
* Offertory : Christ is asked to free the souls of the dead from the infernal flames and the infinite abyss, so that they are not lost in darkness, but find the holy light that was promised to Abraham and his descendants. Praises and supplications are offered in exchange for giving the dead eternal life;
* Holy : this part serves to exalt greatness and holiness of the Lord, whose glory floods heaven and Earth, and to bless those who in whose name they present themselves;
* Agnus Dei : of a simplicity similar to Kyrie eleison, their lines are practically equal to each other and ask the Lamb of God May he give eternal rest to the dead;
* Communion : to close the requiem, please pray once more for the eternal light to illuminate the dead, exalting the mercy of the Lord.
There are other texts, which have been added to some arrangements, such as the motet "Jes Foot", he "Set me free"(which comes from the"Absolution") and the "In paradisum"(from the burial).
The requiem of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart It is one of the best known. This is the last composition of the Austrian musician, who left unfinished and was finished by his disciple Franz Xaver Süssmayr According to his instructions. This requiem was premiered at the mass that was held after the death of one's own Mozart .
Antonio Salieri , Robert Schumann , Johannes Brahms , Giuseppe Verdi , Igor Stravinski and Andrew Lloyd Webber they are other composers who have created requiems, often with the intention of being interpreted in funerals of loved ones to honor their memory .