A text is a set of signs , encoded in a system, which attempts to transmit a message. The poetry , for its part, is linked to the aesthetic intention of words, especially when they are organized in verse.

He poetic text , therefore, is the one who appeals to various stylistic resources to convey emotions and feelings , respecting the criteria Author's style. In its origins, poetic texts had a ritual and community character, although other themes appeared over time. It should also be mentioned that the first poetic texts were created to be sung.

The most common is that the poetic text is written in verse and receives the name of poem or poetry There are, however, poetic texts developed in prose. The verses, stanzas and rhythm make up the metric of the poetic text, where poets print the seal of their literary resources.

Poetic texts stand out for the inclusion of elements of symbolic value and of images literary In this way, the reader must have an active attitude to decode the message. For example: a poetic text can refer to the sun as "The golden coin" wave "source of life", while a scientific text would mention it as a "Star of the spectral type".

In the poetic genre, in short, the esthetic of language over content, thanks to various phonological, semantic and syntactic procedures. Modern poetic text is usually characterized by its capacity for association and synthesis, with an abundance of metaphors and other literary figures.

Literary figures in poetry

For literature, words represent an end in themselves; the figure literary (also called rhetoric), in its broadest sense, is any resource that the authors use in order to beautify their texts, to intensify their messages. On the other hand, they are defined as an alteration of the normal use of language to project a certain stylistic effect.

Literary figures are more common in poetry than in prose; however, they exceed the limits of literature and reach everyday speech, although to a lesser extent. From a rhetorical point of view, these resources make sentences more pleasant and persuasive, ignoring grammar rules. It is an ornament, born as a result of a very specific goal by the writer.

Let's see some of the literary figures used by the authors of the Castilian language:

* allegory: is achieved by connecting a series of metaphors or symbols to express reality on an imaginary plane. It can be seen in the following extract:

"Our lives are the rivers
What will they give at sea ...
There go the manors
There the rivers flow
There the other medium ...

* simile or comparison: it is used to describe in a descriptive way the similarity or the analogy that two realities present, and it is achieved through relating two concepts by means of links comparatives or particles ("like a volcano that deaf announces that it will burn");

* personification or prosopopeya: it is about the attribution of characteristics of human beings to animals or inanimate beings, as it happens in wonderful stories, allegories and fables. Some examples of allegorical personification are the grace, the wisdom and the blame. The mythical character Don Juan, on the other hand, personifies seduction. Examples in verses: "the night wind spins in the sky and sings", "the night tells me about you";

* hyperbole: consists of presenting a reality disproportionately, whether amplified or diminished. In other words, it is an exaggerated way of expressing oneself. Through this resource, the literature achieves greater intensity, as can be seen in the following examples: "for hurting it hurts my breath", "If you don't come back to my side soon, I will bleed to death".