The term noun phrase that we are now going to analyze must be stated that it has a double aspect from the etymological point of view. Thus, we find, with the fact that the first part of it, phrase, comes from the Greek and specifically from the word syntagma which is the result of the union of three elements: the prefix syn- which is equivalent to "together", the root taxis which means "order" and the suffix -ma which can be translated as "result of the action".
The second part of the concept that we are going to study, nominal, has its etymological origin in Latin. More exactly it comes from the word nominalis that is formed from the sum of nomen which is synonymous with "name" and the suffix -to the which is equivalent to "relative to".
is defined as syntagma to syntactic structure composed of words and morphemes that are organized hierarchically around a syntactic core (based on word which grants the basic features of the phrase).
When you talk about noun phrase , therefore, it points towards that syntactic unit whose syntactic core is a noun or first name . There are those who consider that the noun phrase can also have a pronoun as a nucleus, although others prefer to include this category within a set called determining phrase .
As we said, the core of any noun phrase is the name. However, we must not overlook the fact that its structure is determined by the fact that it can also be accompanied by articles (el, los, la…), determinants or decisive adjectives (un, ese, mi…) or qualifying adjectives (red, wonderful, spectacular, ugly ...), prepositional phrases (of this woman, of her house ...).
In the same way it is also possible that any noun phrase may be accompanied by an adjective subordinate sentence or another nominal phrase that will be presented in apposition. An example of this last case may be the following: The parents of my friend, Eva and Manuel.
The noun phrase is considered as a syntactic structure of endocentric roots because their combination characteristics are equal to those of nucleus , while the other syntactic properties are conditioned by the singularities of this nucleus.
Usually, the noun phrases designate some of the participants in the verbal predicates or these are arguments conditioned by some preposition . This type of phrase can fulfill six functions when it does not have a link: subject, direct object, circumstantial complement, vocative, attribute or adjacent nominal in apposition.
With links, the noun phrase incorporates eight other functions: complement of the name, adjective, adverb, direct, indirect, circumstantial, of prepositional regime or agent complement.
“My father has a very strong headache”, “Jorge is a wonderful tennis player”, “The stadium bar is empty when there is a match”, "Did you offer juice to your guest?", “This vacation I went to bed after midnight”, “Claudia lives near the beach” and “Wonderful events happen in this country” These are some expressions that include a noun phrase.
And all this without forgetting that other types of phrases such as adverbial, prepositional, verbal or adjective exist against the nominal.