Before entering fully into the exposition of the meaning and various meanings that the term paradigm has, we must determine its etymological origin. Specifically it is found in the Latin word paradigm, although it is true that this in turn comes from the Greek. More exactly it comes from παράδειϒμα, which is formed from the union of the prefix "para", which means together, and from the word "deigma" which is translated as an example or model.
The concept of paradigm (a word that derives from the Greek paradeigma) is used in everyday life as a synonym for "example" or to refer to something that is taken as "model" . In principle, it was taken into account at the level grammatical (to define its use in a certain context) and was valued from the rhetoric (to mention a parable or fable). From the 1960s, the scope of the notion expanded and 'paradigm' began to be a common term in scientific vocabulary and epistemological expressions when it became necessary to speak of Models or patterns .
In this sense, in its meaning as a “model”, we could set an example like the following: Valentino's work is a paradigm for many young designers.
One of the first figures in history who addressed the concept that concerns us now was the great Greek philosopher Plato who made his own definition of what he considered to be a paradigm. In this sense, the quoted thinker stated that this word came to determine what are the ideas or the types of example of a thing in question.
The American Thomas Kuhn , an expert in Philosophy and a leading figure in the world of science, was the one who was responsible for renewing the theoretical definition of this term to give it a meaning more in line with current times, by adapting it to describe with it to the series of practices that draw the guidelines of a scientific discipline over a certain time period.
In this way, a scientific paradigm it establishes what must be observed; the kind of questions that must be developed to get answers about the purpose pursued; what structure should these questions have and sets guidelines that indicate the interpretation path for the results obtained from a scientific research .
When a paradigm can no longer meet the requirements of a science (for example, in the face of new findings that invalidate previous knowledge ), is succeeded by another. It is said that a paradigm shift It is something dramatic for science, since they appear stable and mature.
However, it is also necessary to make very clear that the paradigm is a term that can be used in other fields outside the scientific area. In this sense, it is also widely used, and often, in the field of Linguistics where it is used to refer to a whole set of words that, within the same context, can be used interchangeably.
Thus, if we had this expression, El¬¬¬ ______ was blind, we could complete it using in that hole a series of nouns such as man, child, old man, cat or bird.
In the social Sciences , the paradigm is related to the concept of worldview . The concept is used to mention all those experiences, beliefs, experiences and values that impact and condition the way in which a person sees reality and acts accordingly. This means that a paradigm is also the way the world is understood.